Exercise Page: 78
1. Define the term ’tissue’?
A tissue is defined as a cluster of cells which are similar in structure and work together to perform a particular function.
2. How many types of elements together make up the xylem tissue? Name them.
The xylem tissue is made up of four main elements, namely:
➢ Xylem fibres
➢ Xylem parenchyma
3. How are simple tissues different from complex tissues in plants?
The following are the differences:
|Simple tissues||Complex tissues|
|They are made up of a single type of cell that performs only one common function||They are made up of more than one kind of a cell that coordinate to perform one particular function|
4. Differentiate between parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma on the basis of their cell wall.
The following are the differences based on cell wall between different tissues:
|Cell walls are thin and made up of cellulose||Cell walls are thick at the edges due to the deposition of pectin||Cell walls are thick due to the deposition of lignin|
5. What are the functions of the stomata?
Stomata are the tiny pores present on the outer layer of the cells, the epidermis. Stomata bring about the exchange of gases and transpiration.
6. Diagrammatically show the difference between the three types of muscle fibres.
There are three types of muscle fibres, they are:
1. Cardiac muscles
- Present in the heart.
- Involuntary in nature.
- They have 1 nucleus.
- The muscle fibers are branched.
2. Smooth muscles
- Found in lungs and alimentary canal.
- Involuntary in nature.
- They have 1 nucleus.
- They are spindle shaped.
3. Striated muscles
- They are connected with bones
- Voluntary in nature.
- They are long and cylindrical muscle fibers.
- They possess many nuclei.
- Striated muscles are unbranched.
7. What is the specific function of the cardiac muscle?
The cardiac muscles are branched and cylindrical. They are uninucleated and are involuntary in nature. Throughout one’s lifetime, the cardiac muscles bring about the rhythmic contraction and relaxation.
8. Differentiate between striated, un-striated and cardiac muscles on the basis of their structure and site/location in the body.
The following are the differences between different types of muscles based on their structure and location in the body.
|Character||Striated muscles||Un-striated muscles||Cardiac muscles|
|Shape/Structure||Long, cylindrical, non – tapering.They are un-branched.||Long and tapering.They are un – branched.||Cylindrical and non – tapering.They are branched.|
|Location in body||Hands, legs and skeletal muscles||Wall of stomach, intestine, ureter and bronchi||Heart|
|Dark and light bands||Present||Absent||Present but less prominent|
9. Draw a labelled diagram of a neuron.
Diagram of a neuron along with the labelling is as follows:
10. Name the following.
(a) Tissue that forms the inner lining of our mouth.
(b) Tissue that connects muscle to bone in humans.
(c) Tissue that transports food in plants.
(d) Tissue that stores fat in our body.
(e) Connective tissue with a fluid matrix.
(f) Tissue present in the brain.
(a) Tissue that forms the inner lining of our mouth – The epithelial tissue, Squamous epithelium.
(b) Tissue that connects muscle to bone in humans – Tendon
(c) Tissue that transports food in plants – Phloem
(d) Tissue that stores fat in our body – Adipose tissue
(e) Connective tissue with a fluid matrix – Blood, it is a fluid connective tissue
(f) Tissue present in the brain – Nervous tissue
11. Identify the type of tissue in the following:
Skin, bark of tree, bone, lining of kidney tubule, vascular bundle.
➢ Skin: Striated squamous epithelial tissue
➢ Bark of tree: Protective tissue and cork
➢ Bone: Connective tissue
➢ Lining of kidney tubule: Cuboidal epithelial tissue
➢ Vascular bundle: Conducting tissue(xylem and phloem). Complex permanent tissue
12. Name the regions in which parenchyma tissue is present.
The parenchyma is found in:
- The pith of stems and roots
- When parenchyma contains chlorophyll it is called as chlorenchyma, it is found in green leaves
- Parenchyma found in aquatic plants has large air cavities which enables them to float and are hence called aerenchyma.
13. What is the role of epidermis in plants?
The epidermis in plants forms an uninterrupted and continuous layer that has no intercellular spaces. It provides protection.
14. How does the cork act as a protective tissue?
Cork cells are dead. The arrangement of cells is so dense, that there is no intercellular space. Deposition of suberin is observed on the walls of the cells that make them impervious to water and gases.
15. Complete the following chart.
The completed chart is as follows:
Er. Aman Blogger, Educator