Access Answers of Science NCERT Class 9 Chapter 4 – Structure Of The Atom (All in text and Exercise Questions solved)

Exercise-4.1 Page: 47

1. What are the canal rays?

Solution:

The radiations that are positively charged are canal rays. This discovery was crucial in the discovery of another subatomic particle that was positively charged – proton.

2. If an atom contains one electron and one proton, will it carry any charge or not?

Solution:

Since a proton is a positively charged particle and an electron is a negatively charged particle, the net charge becomes neutral as both the particles neutralizes each other.

Exercise-4.2 Page: 49

1. On the basis of Thompson’s model of an atom, explain how the atom is neutral as a whole.

Solution:

As per Thompson’s model of an atom,

(i) An atom contains a positively charged sphere in which the negatively charged electrons are implanted.

(ii) Electrons and protons are equal in magnitude, hence an atom on the whole is electrically neutral.

2. On the basis of Rutherford’s model of an atom, which subatomic particle is present in the nucleus of an atom?

Solution:

As per Rutherford’s model of an atom, the positively charged protons are the ones that are present in the atom.

3. Draw a sketch of Bohr’s model of an atom with three shells.

Solution:

structure of the atom

4. What do you think would be the observation if the ∝– particle scattering experiment is carried out using a foil of a metal other than gold?

Solution:

In the ∝ – particle scattering experiment, when any other metal foil is used instead of gold, the observation would remain the same. This is because the structure of an atom when considered individually remains the same.

Exercise-4.2.4 Page: 49

1. Name the three subatomic particles of an atom.

Solution:

An atom consists of three subatomic particles:

  • Protons  – positively charged
  • Electrons – negatively charged
  • Neutrons – neutral in nature ( no charge )

2. Helium atom has an atomic mass of 4 u and two protons in its nucleus. How many neutrons does it have?

Solution:

Given: Atomic mass of helium atom = 4u, 2 protons in helium nucleus

Atomic mass = number of protons + number of neutrons

4 = 2 + number of neutrons

Number of neutrons = 4 – 2 = 2

Hence, Helium has 2 neutrons.

Exercise-4.3 Page: 50

1. Write the distribution of electrons in Carbon and Sodium atoms.

Solution:

Distribution of electrons in Carbon atoms:

The atomic number of Carbon is 6

Number of electrons is equal to the number of protons in carbon atom i.e., 6

The distribution of electrons in carbon atom is K – 2, L – 4

Distribution of electrons in sodium atoms:

The atomic number of Sodium is 11

Number of electrons is equal to the number of protons in sodium atom i.e., 11

The distribution of electrons in sodium atom is K – 2, L – 8, M – 1

2. If K and L shells of an atom are full, then what would be the total number of electrons in the atom?

Solution:

K shell can hold 2 electrons

L shell can hold 8 electrons

Hence, when both the shells are full, the total number of electrons present in the atom = 2+8 = 10 electrons.

Exercise-4.4 Page: 52

1. How will you find the valency of chlorine, sulphur and magnesium?

Solution:

The definite combining capacity of the atoms of each element, wherein electrons are lost, gained or shared to make the octet of electrons present in the outermost shell is defined as valency. To measure valency, we can figure out the number of electrons that are required to complete the shell in which it is contained or losing excess electrons if present, once the filling is complete.

To find the valency of chlorine:

The atomic number of chlorine is 17

Number of electrons is equal to the number of protons in chlorine i.e., 17

The distribution of electrons in chlorine atom is K – 2, L – 8, M – 7

Hence, from the distribution of chlorine it is clearly evident that to fill the M shell only one electron is required. Therefore its valency is -1. i.e, one electron less

To find the valency of sulphur:

The atomic number of sulphur is 16

Number of electrons is equal to the number of protons in sulphur i.e., 16

The distribution of electrons in sulphur atom is K – 2, L – 8, M – 6

Hence, from the distribution of sulphur it is clearly evident that to fill the M shell two more electrons are required. Therefore its valency is -2, i.e., two electrons lesser.

To find the valency of magnesium:

The atomic number of magnesium is 12

Number of electrons is equal to the number of protons in magnesium i.e., 12

The distribution of electrons in magnesium atom is K – 2, L – 8, M – 2

Hence, from the distribution of magnesium it is clearly evident that to fill the M shell six more electrons are required. But M shell has two electrons only. It possesses lesser electrons than needed to fill the shell.

Thus, we say that the magnesium atom is not stable as the M shell has 2 electrons. Its valency is +2, meaning it has 2 electrons in excess.

 Exercise-4.5 Page: 52

1. If the number of electrons in an atom is 8 and number of protons is also 8, then

(i) What is the atomic number of the atom? and

(ii) What is the charge on the atom?

Solution:

Given: Number of electrons = 8

Number of protons = 8

(a) The atomic number of an atom is the same as the number of protons in that atom, hence its atomic number is 8.

(b) In an atom, the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons. Hence both the charges – positive and negative neutralize each other. Therefore, the atom does not possess any charge.

2. With the help of given Table, find out the mass number of oxygen and sulphur atom.

Table: Composition of Atoms of the First Eighteen Elements with Electron Distribution in Various Shells.

structure of the atom

Solution:

(a) To find the mass number of Oxygen:

Number of protons = 8

Number of neutrons = 8

Atomic number = 8

Atomic mass number = Number of protons + number of neutrons = 8 + 8 = 16

Therefore, mass number of oxygen = 16

(b) To find the mass number of Sulphur:

Number of protons = 16

Number of neutrons = 16

Atomic number = 16

Atomic mass number = Number of protons + number of neutrons = 16 + 16 = 32

 Exercise-4.6 Page: 53

1. For the symbol H, D and T, tabulate three subatomic particles found in each of them.

Solution:

The following table depicts the subatomic particles in Hydrogen (H), Deuterium (D), and Tritium(T).

IsotopeSymbolMass no.Atomic no.No. of electronsNo. of protonsNo. of neutrons
HydrogenH11110
DeuteriumD21111
TritiumT31112

2. Write the electronic configuration of any one pair of isotopes and isobar.

Solution:

(a) Isotopes: Isotopes are atoms which have the same number of protons but the number of neutrons differs. This leads to the variation in mass number too.

Example: Carbon molecule exists as 6C12 and 6C14 but when their electronic configuration is noticed, both have K-2; L-4

(b) Isobars: Isobars are atoms which have the same mass number but differ in the atomic number. Electronic configuration of an isobar pair is as follows,

Example: Electronic configuration of 20Ca40 – K-2; L-8; M-8; N- 2

Electronic configuration of 18Ar40 – K-2; L-8; M-8

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