Exercise Question Page: 28 ( Is Matter Around Us Pure )
1. Which separation techniques will you apply for the separation of the following?
(a) Sodium chloride from its solution in water.
(b) Ammonium chloride from a mixture containing sodium chloride and ammonium chloride.
(c) Small pieces of metal in the engine oil of a car.
(d) Different pigments from an extract of flower petals.
(e) Butter from curd.
(f) Oil from water.
(g) Tea leaves from tea.
(h) Iron pins from sand.
(i) Wheat grains from husk.
(j) Fine mud particles suspended in water.
(a) In water, sodium chloride in its solution can be separated through the process of Evaporation.
(b) The technique of sublimation is apt as Ammonium chloride supports Sublimation.
(c) Tiny chunks of metal pieces in engine oil of car can be manually filtered.
(d) Chromatography can be used for the fine segregation of various pigments from an extract of flower petals.
(e) The technique of centrifugation can be applied to separate butter from curd. It is based on the concept of difference in density.
(f) To separate oil from water which are two immiscible liquids which vary in their densities, separating funnel can be an effective method.
(g) Tea leaves can be manually separated from tea using simple filtration methods.
(h) Iron pins can be separated from sand either manually or with the use of magnets as the pins exhibit strong magnetic quality which can be a key characteristic hence taken into consideration.
(i) The differentiating property between husk and wheat is that there is a difference in their mass. If treated with a small amount of wind energy, a remarkable variation in the moving distance is noticed. Hence to separate them, the sedimentation/winnowing procedure can be applied.
(j) Due to the property of water, sand or fine mud particles tends to sink in the bottom as it is denser provided they are undisturbed. Through the process of sedimentation/decantation water can be separated from fine mud particles as the technique is established on obtaining clear water by tilting it out.
2. Write the steps you would use for making tea. Use the words solution, solvent, solute, dissolve, soluble, insoluble, filtrate, and residue.
(a) Into a vessel, add a cup of milk which is the solvent, supply it with heat.
(b) Add tea powder or tea leaves to the boiling milk, which acts as a solute. Continue to heat
(c) The solute i.e., the tea powder remains insoluble in the milk which can be observed while it is still boiling.
(d) At this stage, add some sugar to the boiling solution while stirring
(e) Sugar is a solute but is soluble in the solvent
(f) Continuous stirring causes the sugar to completely dissolve in the tea solution hence reaching saturation.
(g) Once the raw smell of tea leaves is vanished and tea solution is boiled enough, take the solution off the heat, filter or strain it to separate tea powder and the tea solution. The insoluble tea powder remains as a residue while the solute (sugar) and the solvent (essenced milk solution) strain through the filter medium which is collected as the filtrate.
3. Pragya tested the solubility of three different substances at different temperatures and collected the data as given below (results are given in the following table, as grams of a substance dissolved in 100 grams of water to form a saturated solution).
(a) What mass of potassium nitrate would be needed to produce a saturated solution of
potassium nitrate in 50 grams of water at 313K?
(b) Pragya makes a saturated solution of potassium chloride in water at 353 K and leaves the
solution to cool at room temperature. What would she observe as the solution cools? Explain.
(c) Find the solubility of each salt at 293 K. Which salt has the highest solubility at this
(d) What is the effect of change of temperature on the solubility of a salt?
Mass of potassium nitrate required to produce a saturated solution in 100 g of water at 313 K = 62g
Mass of potassium nitrate required to produce a saturated solution in 50 g of water =?
Required amount = 62 x 50/100 = 31
Hence 31 g of potassium nitrate is required.
(b) The solubility of potassium chloride in water is decreased when a saturated solution of potassium chloride loses heat at 353 K. Consequently, Pragya would observe crystals of potassium chloride which would have surpassed it solubility at low temperatures.
(c) Listed below is the solubility of each salt at 293 K:
- Solubility of Potassium nitrate —> 32/100
- Solubility of Sodium chloride —> 36/100
- Solubility of Potassium chloride —> 35/100
- Solubility of Ammonium chloride —> 37/100
It is observed that the ammonium chloride salt has the highest amount of solubility when compared to any other salt at 293 K.
(d) Effect of change of temperature on the solubility of salts:
The table clearly depicts that the solubility of the salt is dependent upon the temperature and increases with an increase in temperature. With this, we can infer that when a salt arrives at its saturation point at a specific temperature, there is a propensity to dissolve more salt through an increase in the temperature of the solution.
4. Explain the following giving examples.
(a) Saturated solution
(b) Pure substance
(a) Saturated solution: It is that state in a solution at a specific temperature when a solvent is no more soluble without an increase in the temperature. Example: Excess carbon leaves off as bubbles from a carbonated water solution saturated with carbon.
(b) Pure substance: A substance is said to be pure when it comprises of only one kind of molecules, atoms or compounds without adulteration with any other substance or any divergence in the structural arrangement. Example: Sulphur, diamonds
(c) Colloid: A Colloid is an intermediate between solution and suspension. It has particles of various sizes, that ranges between 2 to 1000 nanometers. Colloids can be distinguished from solutions using the Tyndall effect. Tyndall effect is defined as the scattering of light (light beam) through a colloidal solution. Example: Milk, gelatin.
(d) Suspension: It is a heterogeneous mixture that comprises of solute particles that are insoluble but are suspended in the medium. These particles that are suspended are not microscopic but visible to bare eyes and are large enough (usually larger than a micrometre) to undergo sedimentation.
5. Classify each of the following as a homogeneous or heterogeneous mixture.
soda water, wood, air, soil, vinegar, filtered tea.
The following is the classification of the given substances into homogenous and heterogenous mixture.
6. How would you confirm that a colourless liquid given to you is pure water?
We can confirm if a colourless liquid is pure by setting it to boil. If it boils at 100°C it is said to be pure. But if there is a decrease or increase in the boiling point, we infer that water has added impurities hence not pure.
7. Which of the following materials fall into the category of “pure substance”?
Following substances from the above-mentioned list are pure substances:
- Hydrochloric acid
- Calcium oxide
8. Identify the solutions among the following mixtures.
(b) Sea water
(e) Soda water
The following are the solutions from the above-mentioned list of mixture:
- Sea water
- Soda water
9. Which of the following will show the “Tyndall effect”?
(a) Salt solution
(c) Copper sulphate solution
(d) Starch solution.
Tyndall effect is exhibited by only milk and starch solution from the above-mentioned list of solutions.
10. Classify the following into elements, compounds and mixtures.
(c) Sugar solution
(e) Calcium carbonate
(l) Carbon dioxide
Exercises with Question count covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 2:
Exercise 2.1, Page number 15 – Solution of 2 Questions
Exercise 2.2, Page number 18 – Solution of 3 Questions
Exercise 2.3, Page number 24 – Solution of 3 Questions
Exercise 2.4, Page number 24 – Solution of 2 Questions
Chapter Exercise, Page number 28 – Solution of 11 Questions
Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 2
- These NCERT solutions include most of the important questions from the exam point of view.
- Provide a variety of solved examples, which help students in understanding the concepts clearly and easily.
- Helps students to track their own preparation level, analyze their mistakes and increases confidence level.
- The NCERT solutions provide in-depth knowledge to all the students as they are prepared by subject experts after extensive research on each and every topic.
- These solutions strictly follow the CBSE curriculum and form the base for not only board exams but also for other examinations.
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