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Class 10th Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources Notes for Exam

Introduction

Pollution in Ganga

  • The river Ganga is used as a sewage dump for more than 100 cities stretching across Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal.
  • Dumping of untreated sewage,  excreta, and chemicals from industries increases the toxicity of the water.
  • This makes it inhabitable for the flora and fauna in the river system.
  • In 1985 the GAP (Ganga Action Plan) project was initialised to curb the poor quality of the water of river Ganges.

Reduce, recycle and reuse

The 3 R’s to save the environment can be performed by each individual in our society:

  • Reduce: Reducing our usage and wasteful habits. Eg. not wasting food, turning off the switches to save electricity, repairing leaky taps, reducing the amount of water used for bathing etc.
  • Reuse:  Using things again instead of discarding them. For example, reusing plastic utensils and bottles. Many things cannot be recycled or require a lot of energy, instead, we can utilize them for other purposes.
  • Recycle: Collecting discarded paper, plastic, glass or metal objects to manufacture different products rather than synthesizing them from scratch. Must have a mechanism to segregate and dispose of each type of waste separately.

Why Do We Need to Manage Our Resources?

Need to manage natural resources

  • Due to the ever-increasing population and rising demands of changing lifestyles, natural resources are being depleted at an alarming rate. To ensure sustainable, equal distribution of resources and reduction of damage to the environment, management of resources must be an integral part of our society.
  • We must ensure judicious use of our natural resources as it is not unlimited and management of such requires long-term planning in order to last generations.

Increase in demand for natural resources

  • Increasing population is increasing demand for more resources that are getting depleted at an exponential rate.
  • Changing lifestyles and advancements in technology is compelling industries to exploit our natural reserves to meet the demands.

Forests and Wildlife

Forests and wildlife

  • Forests are termed as biodiversity hotspots.
  • Biodiversity is the variety and range of plant and animal life in a particular habitat.
  • Loss of biodiversity may result in loss of ecological balance and damage to the ecosystem.

Stakeholders of forest

When we consider conservation of forests we must consider the following stakeholders:

  • People who habituate around forests and are dependent on forest produce.
  • Forest Department of the Government that own the land and resources.
  • Industrialists: who use the forest to produce certain products e.g leaves of Tendu for bidis and paper mills.
  • Conservationists and wildlife enthusiasts who want to conserve nature in its pristine form.

Monoculture

  • Monoculture is the cultivation of a single crop in a given area.
  • Excessive monoculture destroys the biodiversity of the area.
  • Various needs of the people local to forest areas are neglected such as leaves for fodder, herbs, and fruits for consumption.

Industrialist’s mentality and influence

  • Industrialists consider forest as a source of raw materials.
  • Industries have more political power than the locals and only bother about meeting their demands. They do not care about sustainability and will move on from one habitat to another in search of raw materials.

People intervention in forests

  • Human intervention is a necessity in the management of forest resources and landscapes.
  • Resources must be utilised to ensure development while preserving the environment.
  • Benefits must go to the local people to ensure economic growth and conservation takes place simultaneously.
  • Examples: Bishnoi community in Rajasthan for saving Khejri trees in Jodhpur Rajasthan.

Damage to forests and wildlife

  • Excessive and lawless utilisation of forests will deplete the resources quicker then they can be restored.
  • Destroys the ecological balance and may damage the habitats for various species of flora and fauna.

Sustainable development

  • Sustainable development needs all stakeholders of forest resources to be satisfied.
  • In reality, industries use forests at rates far below the market rates which causes conflict between local dwellers and industrialists.

Chipko movement The Chipko Andolan (‘Hug the Trees Movement’) is one such case of conflict between the industrialist and local dwellers in the 1970s.

Class 10th Chapter 16
  • Chipko Movement
  • Originated in Reni Garhwal, high up in the Himalayas.

The conflict between local villagers and logging contractor → Women of the village stopped felling of trees by hugging them → Contractor had to reverse the action.

Class 10th Chapter 16
  •  Women protecting the trees by hugging them
  • The movement quickly gained popularity and media attention and forced the government to rethink the management of forest resources.
  • Involvement of local people is equally important in the management of forest resources.

Water for All

Water

  • Water is a necessity for all terrestrial forms of life.
  • In India places having water scarcity are also the places experiencing acute poverty.
  • Despite the monsoon, there exists failure to retain groundwater due to loss of vegetation and release of effluents from industries.
  • Decrease in fresh usable water due to the destruction of water table and disruption in water cycle.

Rains and irrigation practices

  • Intervention of government to pursue mega projects neglected the local irrigation methods
  • Strict regulations on usage of stored water and building tanks, dams, and canals
  • Optimum cropping patterns must be followed based on water availability.

Involvement of local people (ex: kulhs)

  • Himachal Pradesh had a canal irrigation system called as kulhs where flowing stream water was diverted to man-made channels which took it to villages down the hillside.
  • The water was used first by the village farthest from the origin of the kulh. This helped water percolate in the soil.
  • It was made defunct after government irrigation system took over.

Dams

  • Dams can store large amounts of water and generate electricity.
  • Mismanagement of dams causes exploitation and there is no equitable distribution of this resource.
  • Criticism about large dams address:
    (i) Displacement of tribals without compensation
    (ii) Corruption and consumption of money without generation of benefits
    (iii) Environmental problems like deforestation.

Coal and Petroleum

Water harvesting

  • Water harvesting encourages soil and water conservation in order to sustain and increase biomass.
  • Increases income for the local community but also alleviates floods and droughts.
  • Examples: Rajasthan’s tanks, Khadins, and Nadis, Maharashtra’s Tals and Bandharas, Madhya Pradesh’s and Uttar Pradesh’s Bundhis, Bihar’s Pynes and Ahars, Himachal Pradesh’s Kulhs, Kattas in Karnataka, ponds in the Kandi belt of Jammu region, and Eris (tanks) in Tamil Nadu, Kerala’s Surangams.
  • Water harvesting constructions are crescent-shaped earthen embankments/concrete check dams built in areas that are seasonally flooded
  • The main purpose is to recharge groundwater.

Groundwater

Advantages:

  • does not evaporate
  • recharges wells and groundwater
  • when flowing does not allow mosquitoes to breed
  • does not come in contact with human contamination

Coal and petroleum

  • Coal and petroleum are derived from fossil fuels which are non-renewable. They will get depleted in due time. Hence proper management for consumption of fossil fuels is important.
  • Their combustion pollutes our environment due to the production of oxides of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen. Therefore, we need to use these resources judiciously.

Why should fossil fuels be used judiciously?

  • Fossil fuels are formed over millions of years of degrading biomass and have a huge amount of carbon.
  • When combusted in a limited supply of oxygen they form harmful gases that pollute the atmosphere which leads to global warming.
  • Judicious use of fossil fuels addresses the efficiency of our machines and ensures sustainability of our resources for the future.

Class 10th Chapter 16

Access Answers to NCERT Class 10 Science Chapter 16 – Sustainable Management of Natural Resources ( All In-text and Exercise Questions Solved)

In-text Questions – 1 Page: 271

1. What changes can you make in your habits to become more environment-friendly?

Solution

In order to become more environment-friendly, the following practices can be incorporated in our day-to-day lives:

  • Turning off any electrical appliance (such as TV’s, water heaters, lights, fans, and air conditioners) when they are not in use.
  • Avoiding the wastage of water by fixing any leaking taps or pipes as soon as possible. Also, the amount of water consumed must be controlled. For example, the tap should not be left running while brushing teeth.
  • Disposing of plastic and glass wastes in recycling bins (many plastics take a long time to decompose and can have adverse effects on the environment).
  • Using recyclable and eco-friendly products instead of the convenient plastic products. For example, using paper or cloth bags instead of polythene bags is an environment-friendly habit.

2. What would be the advantages of exploiting resources with short-term aims?

Solution

Overconsumption of resources with short-term interests in mind will give a boost to the economy. However, the increased growth of the economy will be short-lived since the exploitation of resources is not sustainable. Exploiting resources for the sake of short-term goals will be beneficial to the present generations but not for future generations.

3. How would these advantages differ from the advantages of using a long-term perspective in managing our resources?

Solution

The long-term model of resource consumption enables the conservation of the resources for them to be used by future generations. This will enable the economy to grow over a longer timeframe. It also provides more time for technology to advance and discover new, sustainable energy sources (such as nuclear fusion and fuel cells). All in all, the long-term perspective in managing of resources has significantly greater advantages when compared to the short-term perspective.

4. Why do you think that there should be an equitable distribution of resources? What forces would be working against an equitable distribution of our resources?

Solution

Equitable distribution of resources enables every human to receive their share of the resources and makes sure that everyone has the basic requirements for life (such as food, water, shelter, etc.). The forces that work against equitable distribution include:

  • The regional distribution of resources (such as soil and minerals).
  • Corruption and greed of some humans
  • Uneven distribution of resources between the rich and the poor.

Class 10th Chapter 16

In-text Questions – 2 Page: 275

1. Why should we conserve forests and wildlife?

Solution

The conservation of forests is very important for the stability of the environment. Forests serve as a home to a huge variety of life-forms. Destruction of these forests can disturb the food chain and lead to the extinction of many important species. Also, forests protect the soil from erosion and play a vital role in the water cycle. The loss of forests can severely affect the day-to-day lives of humans.

2. Suggest some approaches towards the conservation of forests.

Solution

Some steps that can be taken to conserve forests include:

Planting of trees to combat deforestation.

Placement of security forces in forests to prevent the poaching and smuggling of forest resources.

Incorporating steps to protect the forest dwellers without disturbing their lifestyles.

Avoiding the conversion of forest land into roads, buildings, and dams.

Class 10th Chapter 16

In-text Questions – 3 Page: 278

1. Find out about the traditional systems of water harvesting/ management in your region.

Solution

In populated metropolitan cities, the primary sources of water include groundwater and lakes. Groundwater is harvested with the help of borewells whereas pipes harvest water directly from the lakes. The harvested water is then stored in water tankers placed at strategic locations throughout the city.

2. Compare the above system with the probable systems in hilly/ mountainous areas or plains or plateau regions.

Solution

In hilly regions, rainwater is often collected and channelled with the help of a stream. The stream is diverted to different areas with the help of canals for the purpose of irrigation. In mountainous regions, water is commonly obtained from the rivers that flow from the glaciers.

In the plains, water is obtained from many natural sources such as lakes and rivers. Groundwater is also harvested with the help of borewells for irrigation and human consumption.

3. Find out the source of water in your region/locality. Is water from this source available to all people living in that area?

Solution

In metropolitan cities, the primary source of water is groundwater. This water is made available to all people in the city. However, poor infrastructure in some localities makes it difficult for some people to obtain the water.

Class 10th Chapter 16

Exercises Questions Page: 280

1. What changes would you suggest in your home in order to be environment-friendly?

Solution

Some important changes that can help make homes more environment-friendly include:

  • Segregation of the garbage into biodegradable waste (food waste) and non-biodegradable waste (plastics).
  • Use of eco-friendly products such as cloth shopping bags and paper cups instead of plastics.
  • Avoiding the wastage of electricity by switching off the electrical appliances that are not in use.
  • Avoiding the wastage of water by quickly fix leaking taps and incorporating practices that reduce water wastage (such as closing the taps while brushing and using water judiciously while bathing).

2. Can you suggest some changes in your school which would make it environment-friendly?

Solution

Some important changes that can help make schools more environment-friendly include:

  • Providing a platform for students and teachers to report any leaking taps so that they can be quickly repaired by the school plumber.
  • Students and teachers must make sure all the lights and fans are switched off when the classes end for the day.
  • Setting up waste segregation bins for biodegradable waste and non-biodegradable waste throughout the school.
  • Promoting the use of transport methods such as bicycles and school buses.

3. We saw in this chapter that there are four main stakeholders when it comes to forests and wildlife. Which among these should have the authority to decide the management of forest produce? Why do you think so?

Solution

The government’s forest department should have the authority because they are a branch of the government which is elected by the people. However, these forest authorities must not be corrupt and must not accept bribes from poachers/smugglers. The forest authorities can use the resources of the government to effectively protect and preserve the forest areas.

4. How can you as an individual contribute or make a difference to the management of (a) forests and wildlife, (b) water resources and (c) coal and petroleum?

Solution
(a). An individual can contribute to the management of forest and wildlife resources by:

  • Organizing and participating in rallies that protest against deforestation and wildlife poaching.
  • Volunteering for many non-government organizations (NGOs) that work towards the protection of forests and wildlife.
  • Organizing and participating in group activities that involve the planting of new trees in forest areas.

(b). An individual can contribute towards the management of water resources by:

  • Avoiding the wastage of water in their daily lives by using water judiciously.
  • Spreading awareness about the importance of water management by participating in rallies/ activities.
  • Promoting practices such as rainwater harvesting and discouraging the discharge of wastewater and sewage into lakes and rivers.

(c). An individual can contribute towards the management of non-renewable energy sources such as coal and petrol by:

  • Using fuel-efficient transportation methods such as carpooling, use of public transport, and use of bicycles.
  • Using energy-efficient light sources such as CFLs and LEDs instead of ordinary bulbs.
  • Using solar water heaters instead of electric heaters for heating water.

5. What can you as an individual do to reduce your consumption of the various natural resources?

Solution

Some practices that can be followed by individuals in order to reduce their consumption of natural resources include:

  • Use of fuel-efficient transport options such as carpooling, bicycles, and public transport.
  • Judicious use of water and avoidance of its wastage.
  • Use of recycled products such as recycled paper and bottles to reduce the demand for natural resources.
  • Promoting the use of renewable resources by using solar water heaters instead of electric heaters.

6. List five things you have done over the last week to (a) conserve our natural resources. (b) increase the pressure on our natural resources.

Solution

Practices for the conservation of natural resources include:

  • Use of bicycles and public transport while travelling to reduce fuel consumption.
  • Use of recycled paper and other recycled products.
  • Segregation of garbage into biodegradable and non-biodegradable bins.
  • Avoiding the wastage of water by using it judiciously and fixing any leaking taps/pipes.

Practices that deplete natural resources include:

  • Wastage of electrical energy by leaving electrical appliances on after use.
  • Wastage of water by ignoring any leaking pipes/taps and leaving the tap on while brushing.
  • Excessive use of plastic products such as polythene bags.

7. On the basis of the issues raised in this chapter, what changes would you incorporate in your lifestyle in a move towards the sustainable usage of our resources?

Solution

The following changes can be incorporated into the lifestyles of individuals in order to move towards a sustainable usage of natural resources:

  • Segregate the waste generated in homes into biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste.
  • Avoid the wastage of electricity by switching off lights, fans, and other electrical appliances when not in use.
  • Use water judiciously and avoid its wastage by quickly repairing any leaking taps/pipes.
  • Avoid the wastage of water by regulating the quantity of water consumed for bathing, washing clothes, brushing, etc.
  • Practising environment-friendly methods such as rainwater harvesting and planting of trees.
  • Usage of recycled products such as recycled paper and bottles.
  • Usage of eco-friendly products such as cloth shopping bags and paper cups instead of non-biodegradable polythene bags and disposable plastic cups.

Class 10th Chapter 16

Frequently Asked Questions on Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

What would be the advantages of exploiting resources with short-term aims?

Overconsumption of resources with short-term interests in mind will give a boost to the economy. However, the increased growth of the economy will be short-lived since the exploitation of resources is not sustainable. Exploiting resources for the sake of short-term goals will be beneficial to the present generations but not for future generations.

Why should we conserve forests and wildlife?

The conservation of forests is very important for the stability of the environment. Forests serve as a home to a huge variety of life-forms. Destruction of these forests can disturb the food chain and lead to the extinction of many important species. Also, forests protect the soil from erosion and play a vital role in the water cycle. The loss of forests can severely affect the day-to-day lives of humans.

Find out about the traditional systems of water harvesting/ management in your region?

In populated metropolitan cities, the primary sources of water include groundwater and lakes. Groundwater is harvested with the help of borewells whereas pipes harvest water directly from the lakes. The harvested water is then stored in water tankers placed at strategic locations throughout the city.

Download Notes & NCERT Solutions(click here)

Chapter-16-Sustainable-Management-of-Natural-Resources

Category: Class 10th

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